Alfred Evert 15.12.2006

05.08. Airplane NT

Previous chapter did show how dam-up-pressure at the bow of an airplanes can be transferred into thrust. As an example was shown, how sufficient pressure- and suction-faces can be installed at the A380. Up to now, most fuselages were build in shape of a thin and long pipe with a sharp bow, in order to minimize the air-resistance. As now the Trout-Thrust is based on the dam-up-pressure, also planes could be build with a thick bow. So that new thrust-technology will allow also a new design of the airplanes.

A second problem is the differing demand for lift. At the start-phase, the wings deliver too less lift, so the machine must be pushed for raising up with huge energy input. At the other hand, at the horizontal flight with travel-speed even too much lift is available. A general solution might be possible only by generally new conceptions.

Third problem: flying all around the world is enormous harmful for the environment. At high heights the sensible air-layers become polluted. Especially at the area of airports the combustion exhaust gases and soot is an enormous pollution. Unbearable are the noises at wide environment. Here now are discussed proposals for the solution of these problems.

Vortices Street
Building airplanes is a great achievement of today´s techniques. The development demanded great efforts until that high standard was achieved. Today, everybody can fly to any destination at any time. However, that huge flight traffic is a gigantic waste of resources and environment pollution. The problems can only be solved with quite new technologies - e.g. like the following. At first however, some simple facts:

At picture 05.08.01 upside is drawn the round cross-section (blue) of thin wire, which is resting within a flow (red) respective is moving towards left within resting air. Behind the wire comes up the well known ´street of vortices´, i.e. turbulence and strong resistance. That resistance against the movement is not based on these backward vortices, not at all, like wrongly told often.

Decisive for resistance exclusively are pressures direct at the surface of that body: at the front side affects the pressure of dammed up fluid, aside affects a relative small static pressure (based on relative fast flows there), to the rear end however, the fluid can´t flow fast enough (if the speed is not quite slow), thus at the back of the body comes up a relative emptiness (marked yellow). Only the pressure difference direct at the surface of a body results that resistance - here practically a ´negative drive´ - while these vortices are only secondary side effects.

Decisive for resistance exclusively are pressures direct at the surface of that body: at the front side affects the pressure of dammed up fluid, aside affects a relative small static pressure (based on relative fast flows there), to the rear end however, the fluid can´t flow fast enough (if the speed is not quite slow), thus at the back of the body comes up a relative emptiness (marked yellow). Only the pressure difference direct at the surface of a body results that resistance - here practically a ´negative drive´ - while these vortices are only secondary side effects. At this picture below, schematic is sketched the known solution for the reduction of resistance. As the walls aside of the body are curved smooth back, the air no longer must flow fast behind the body and the area of very small density no longer exists. These ´flow-conform´ bodies affect only a part of previous resistance. However, the resistance is not reduced to zero, because the dam-up-pressure of the front side has no corresponding contrary pressure from the rear end.

Vortices Train
Today´s favoured theory for lift probably is the ´Circulation-Theory´ (as long as not removed by my explanations of chapter 05.05. ´Lift at Wings´). Commonly thus a ´circulation´ of air is assumed around the wings (below ahead, upside back) and in addition is assumed these two vortices at both outer ends of the wings are turning right-angle back, thus building a large closed ´vortex-ring´, like schematic shown at picture 05.08.02 upside (marked by arrows).

It´s further deduced, the ´strength´ of that ring-vortex-system determines the strength of the generated lift-force. That´s analogue to the wrong understanding, previous vortices streets would cause the resistance. At the other hand, generally is assumed the vortices and turbulences affect negative for any forward movement. That´s why e.g. ´winglets´ at the end of wings are used in order to reduce these side-vortices.

That´s total nonsense because ´damage´ does not occur at the rear end of the wing but much further ahead. At this picture below schematic is drawn a wing. Based on the suction area back-upside the air is accelerated and drawn along the upper face (see arrow left side). At the other hand, air from frontside-aside (see arrow right side) also flows into that area of relative emptiness. That flow is really negative because filling up that area with additional air. That effect is only to avoid effectively if the wings are shaped ´like arrowhead´ (the nose of wings shows outside-back), so the flow from aside ´comes too late´ for parts of the wing near the fuselage.

So if wing produces lift-forces, inevitably come up these vortices trains resp. turbulences behind. It makes no sense to get rid of these secondary side-effects (see previous mentioned chapter). Nevertheless all causes for turbulences without corresponding profit must be avoided at its best.

Too much Lift
Lift increases by square of speed (as commonly assumed). At start phase and its low speed thus (too) less lift force exists. When the flight-speed is achieved, a surplus of lift exists. Only this can explain, why the engines are mounted at the wrong side, below of the wing, like schematic sketched at picture 05.08.03 at A (wing green, engine red). Actually, the air upside should be accelerated and not below of the wing, like sometimes done even by engines mounted ahead of the wing (like sketched at B).

In order to achieve sufficient lift at the start phase, the effective faces are enlarged, e.g. by additional ´wings-ahead´ or ´rear-flaps´, like also sketched at B. However, the complex mechanics of these units obviously show, these are only ´stopgap measures´ which do not solve the central point of that problem directly.

Right side of picture 05.08.03 schematic is shown how the wings and engines are to arrange in principle: the engine is to position straight line behind the wing (C). Stronger lift results, if the air moves faster upside of a face, thus the flap (D) should be turned down. The engine sucks in the air only from the upper side, while below of the wing comes up an area of higher density same time.

Opposite, if the wing should represent only a neutral flow-conform body, that flap (E) is turned a little bit upward. Around the wing at both sides thus exist faster flows, sucking off air from the nose, thus reducing the resistance.

Lift results exclusively by the difference of static pressures and these by themselves correlates with the speed of flows. Engines produce fast flows towards backward, however suck in the same volume of air same time. Thus it makes sense to coordinate the functions of both constructional elements. Depending on the demanded lift forces, the profile of wings must be variable. However this should be done much simpler than by today´s commonly used techniques.

Resistance against movement ahead depends on the shape of the body, i.e. on the relation of height and length and the contours of faces. The resistance increases by square of speed and naturally also by increased projected face, just because a wider surface must redirect corresponding more air masses. Thus suitable are elements of ´flow-conform´ shape. At the other hand, each application naturally has to include additional points of view.

At the following now are discussed fuselages, which are totally unsuitable, by today´s understanding, because showing much too wide surfaces of attack. These ´clumsy´ shapes however are most effective for the ´dam-pressure-motor´ of previous chapter.

Square Boxes
At picture 05.08.04 is shown a ´stiff-shaped´ fuselage as a starting point, upside by view top down onto the fuselage, downside by view from aside, at the middle some cross-sectional views according to each area of dotted lines.

In principle that fuselage has right-angle cross-section, only the edges are rounded a little bit. Towards the rear end, the upper side keeps most wide, only the below face decreases V-shaped.

Compared with common shape of fuselages, this shape is really ´awkward´, however advantageous for using trout-thrust. Above this exists an essential advantage as the ´right-angled´ space inside is much better usable than within the narrow and long ´pipes´ of common airplanes.

Upside mounted Wing
At picture 05.08.05 now the arrangement of additional constructional elements schematic is sketched, at A by cross-sectional view of the airplane, at B a vertical cross-sectional view of longitudinal axis and at C by view top-down onto that airplane. An essential characteristic of that new technology is, the wings are installed upside of the fuselage and the engines behind the wing (here of single-engine airplane).

Previous square fuselage (blue) here is drawn once more. At the upper edges are installed ´poles´, long stretched and shaped flow-conform, here called ´long-posts´ (grey). Cross upon these long-posts is mounted a one-piece wing (green). The central part of the wing thus is positioned upside of the upper face of the fuselage, which there is rather wide and flat. Only short parts of the wing reach out aside. The front edges of these outer parts of the wing are arrow-shaped in order to avoid negative flows from aside (like mentioned upside). Normal elevator-flaps (dark green) are installed at the outer rear ends of the wings.

Both long-posts reach out further backward (behind the rear end of the wing), each building a rudder-elements (dark green). Beams are installed cross to these long-posts for supporting the engine (red). The inlet of that engine is positioned at the level of the wing. By flap (dark green) at rear end of the wing is controlled which part of air is sucked into the engine along the upper or below side of the wing.

Already that side view (B) obviously shows, the lift-force is not only produced at the upper side of the wing. The wing and the fuselage practically build a nozzle, so also at the surface of the fuselage exists fast flow. As the long-posts protect that area against flows from aside, the suction effect of that closed canal reaches far ahead over the fuselage upper surface. So the fuselage by itself essentially contributes lift-forces. Much less span of wing is necessary, compared with common airplanes.

Wide Fuselage
´Length makes running´ is a basic rule of fluid sciences: if the fluid at front is pushed aside, a body behind can follow nearly without additional efforts, no matter how long that body is. This rule is valid, no matter concerning trains or boots or ships or airplane fuselages. ´Width makes pulling´ however is the essential rule of that new technology, and the width in addition contributes essentially to the lift forces at that conception. Analogue to previous picture, now at picture 05.08.06 a double-engine machine is sketched with a fuselage much wider, at A by view top-down, at B by cross-sectional view and at C by cross-sectional view through the longitudinal axis.

By view top-down (A) the fuselage (dark blue) shows nearby a right-angle surface. The rear end is some rounded, while the front runs cross to the longitudinal axis, rounded a little bit only outside. The cockpit should allow free view, so it´s installed at a central ´nose´ (light blue) some in front of the fuselage.

The cross-sectional view (B) now shows the fuselage (dark blue) inclusive the central cockpit-nose (light blue) as a flat rectangle, only the edges some rounded. At the edges upside-outside again two long-posts (grey) are installed, now in addition a central long-post (grey). Only that middle long-post builds a rudder (dark green) at its rear end. Between the rear end parts of the long-posts, again cross-beams are installed (grey) for the support of two engines (red).

The longitudinal cross-sectional view (C) shows, the fuselage (dark blue) like the cockpit-nose (light blue) now have flow-conform contours, almost symmetric, i.e. thus they are neutral concerning lift. This body thus affects relative few resistance, comparable with the pipe-shaped common fuselage. Here however, the fuselage is stretched towards both sides. The faces upside and below are rather flat and also the surfaces aside are curved only little bit.

Picture 05.08.06 below at D, once more shows the longitudinal cross-section, by some larger scale, at a position of climbing flight. The flap (dark green) at the rear end of the wing is pointed out, directly ahead of the inlet of the engine. The flap shows down, so the air for the engine is taken only from the upper side of the wing.

Same time however cross-section surface between flap and upper side builds a bottleneck. Such nozzles do not increase the resistance but the increase the speed of flow within. The air flows off accelerated - however that acceleration by itself affects back into flow, i.e. affecting like suction further ahead at the fuselage upper surface. So again the lift is not only produced upside of the wing but also upside of the total surface of the fuselage.

When common airplanes are climbing up, the air is dammed up downside of the wings and upon that ´air cushion´ the plane is pushed up by its motors - with huge fuel consumption. Here that wide downside face of the fuselage naturally builds a wide and stabile area of high density. Because the surfaces are completely flat, the air softly flows off at the rear end, resulting much less turbulence than common fuselages.

Decisive however is, here that airplane is not pushed upward above that air-cushion, but the fuselage inclusive the wing build a wide surface by angle of attack, i.e. at each front side curved surface now exists the maximum lift - pulling upward that plane. Lastly that plane is also pushed up, however not by motors but by the atmospheric pressure. As the inlets of the engines take air only from the upper faces, the laminar flow won´t cut off even along these rather long distances.

New Appearance
At the beginning of flight-development, machines of most strange shapes were checked. Also today, planes of most different conceptions are flying around. Nevertheless some basis principles resulted, which at the one hand cover diverse demands and at the other hand allow to build production series. Preferred measure e.g. is using likely techniques within fuselages of different lengths. Instead of variable lengths now here is preferred to build planes of different widths.

Picture 05.08.07 shows previous airplane by diagonal view, in order to visualize that unusual appearance of planes. However like this, future machines will look like. Remarkable at first is the cockpit reaching out of the body, so the pilots have free view ahead and aside (however that nose well could show some rounded design).

Remarkable is the broad front side, cross to flight direction, showing wide projected surface, only slightly curved - most advantageous for previous dam-pressure-motor. At a whole, the fuselage is characterized by flat surfaces, nearby symmetric decreasing towards the rear end. The space within that plane offers quite new ´feeling of room´ and all necessary units are much easier to install than within the ´narrow pipes´ of today´s airplanes.

The continuous wing is supported several times, thus can be constructed with few technical efforts. These elements will be rather ´thin´ and light and the wing must reach aside only short a distance, because additional face for lift now is represented by the total surface of the fuselage. The engines (and thus the source of noises) are arranged upside of the fuselage, easy to reach for maintenance etc. Decisive now is, the engines are not isolated and serving only for drive but same time they are used for controlling the airflows along the faces. The engine´s additional suction is important for starting, as long as the plane by itself has not achieved sufficient speed.

New Control-Techniques
The wing plus flap sketched at previous picture 05.08.06 at D, now at picture 05.08.08 upside are shown once more by larger scale. Upside of the fuselage (A) with some distance is positioned that middle part of the wing (B) and at its rear end is installed that flap (C). These constructional elements are conventional, however could be replaced by elements better fitting to functions demanded.

In general, these elements are guided between each two long-posts, so the whole techniques for changing the position are installed within long-posts. These elements by themselves thus are thin and easy to build, while same time much more possibilities for control are available.

At second part of that picture, at the middle, previous wing is replaces by three segments (D, E and F), each can be shifted into horizontal and/or vertical direction and/or turned somehow (see arrows).

At third, at the below part of that picture is demonstrated, these segments (G, H and I) well could show different shape of profiles. Generally, these elements should be positioned near to the upper surface of the fuselage.

These segments no longer must function primary as wings - but they serve for fast flow directly alongside the fuselage upper surface, in order to produce lift at that wide face. Here for example the arrangement is sketched ´lamella-like´. At the one hand, the air upside of the segments is accelerated and at the other hand air, the air is drawn off the fuselage upper surface. Thus an area of relative emptiness respective a maximum lift is generated. For other situations, the segments e.g. could be moved upward and shifted together in order to represent only one flow-conform body without much lifting effect.

So depending on the position of each segment, more or less ´nozzle-effect´ is achieved, i.e. the force of lift is controllable without resistance losses. In addition, the centre of the lift-forces can be shifted to and fro. At least, one segment could be turned up so far, it will function as landing-flap. That new technology offers multiple possibilities for balancing the airplane at different phases of the flight.

New Engine-Technology
Also arrangement of engines at previous pictures is much too conventional. One must get off the fix idea, turbine engines must be anywhere round and symmetric. Up to now it was aimed to produce a concentrated reaction at the turbine outlet to achieve the demanded strong thrust for starting the airplane. If now already at that phases reasonable lift force is generate at curved wide faces, the suction effect at the turbine-inlet can be organized for an additional function.

At picture 05.08.09 schematic is shown a suitable arrangement by a sectional view, upside by vertical cross-sectional view, below by horizontal cross-sectional view. The fuselage (A) is marked blue and the general way and areas of the air (B, C and D) are marked by different red colours. The engine is integrated within fuselage in total.

Generally, the air at the inlet of a pump already should be a twisted flow, e.g. through snail-shaped inlet walls. As long as air is guided alongside curved surfaces, suction will draw air also from areas far away. So here the intake-area takes the air through a narrow and wide slot, just below previous control-segment. Just there the air should ´disappear´ from the fuselage upper surface, in order to produce suction and fast flow at rear part of that ´fuselage-wing´. Especially at start-phase, when the engine works at its maximum, the fuselage-lift forces becomes maximum strength.

At this picture schematic is drawn also the outlet (D) of that engine. Also there the jet should exit via a flat slot at the rear end of the fuselage. Accompanied by that flow, also the air upside and below of the fuselage can leave the airplane by an ordered stream. Details for new engines are discussed at the following chapter. At any case however, that arrangement of engines will remarkably reduce the noise-level.

New Drive-Technology
Picture 05.08.10 again shows that airplane by a diagonal view, which now is ´tidied up´ and thus free of any useless turbulences. The central part of the wing now is replaced by two times three ´nozzle-segments´ (dark green) which are movably installed between each two long-posts (grey). By changing the positions of the segments, the speed of the flow and the suction at the fuselage upper surface are controlled, so the fuselage by itself becomes an important ´wing´ - with variable lifting forces.

Behind of the nozzle-segments, the inlet slits (red) for the engines are marked. The engines by themselves are not visible because completely integrated within the fuselage. The airplane as a whole now shows only flat and curved surfaces.

Analogue to this example, single-engine planes could be build. For lager planes however, some more and smaller engines should be preferred. Only at the starting phase, all engines are demanded - same time producing the most strong lift-forces at the upper fuselage. At normal flight-phase, one working engine will be sufficient - because the main thrust now is produced by the trout-engines. At this picture is only marked the slot for the dam-up-inlet (the line at the bow) and the outlet (dotted line upside of the fuselage).

The fuel consumption at its maximum will be one third of comparable conventional airplanes, just because the maximum weights at the start phase no longer are lifted by motor-power but prevailingly by the power of the atmospheric pressure. At flight phase, again much less fuel is consumed - because the major part of drive is done by dam-pressure-motor, totally for free.

So these are the main principles of these new technologies for airplane construction. Specialists are asked to check intensively the diverse possibilities and advantages of that new conception. I think it´s lot to do at wind-canals, until previous points of view become optimum products. My job is done - however new aspects must be discussed concerning prop- and jet-engines, as described next chapter.

05.15. Prop- and Jet-Engines Aero - Technology