Alfred Evert 2015-12-31

05.15. Prop- and Jet-Engines

Some discrepancy exists at the aeronautics: the fuselages and wings are build as most flow-conform bodies in order to achieve most view air resistance. Opposite, the drive engines often show flows and processes rather insufficient. For example, the prop-engines whirl around the air building long vortices rear off. Every prop-blade affect suction resulting a spiral air motion, into which the next blade hits, finding merely resistance and thus producing merely thrust. So energy is invested for the rotation of air - completely fruitless. Air becomes accelerated by suction - however its kinetic energy is not used. For example, the jet-engines are pushing air to and fro within the rotor- and stator-blades, so merely can come up a clear flux. Prevailingly pressure is produced with inevitably coming up of strong counter pressure, demanding high energy input. The processes of jet-engines are too much oriented at combustion engines - with their well known bad efficiency. Here even more energy is wasted by (only partly effective) reaction technique. Without any doubts, the airplane engines are ´high-tech-products´, only specialists are able to build and maintain. Nevertheless the considerations of a layman might help for a general think over.

New Prop-Engine
Based on its relative simple construction, by majority the props are used at small machines. However, also the complex turbo-props or -fans are suitable and economic engines for large airplanes. For example, they are less endangered by collisions of birds. Nevertheless, previous problems exist for all these engine types. Only a general new design can avoid theses problems.

At picture 05.15.01 are sketched the constructional elements of a new conception: the body (dark grey) has a cone-shaped part at its front side, where guide-fins (LS, light grey) are mounted. The prop-wheel (PR, red) has many blades (light red). Its drive is done by a shaft (red) and the motor (M, green). A turbine-wheel (TR, blue) has many blades (light blue). A gear (G, green) makes it turning some slower than the shaft and the prop-wheel.

Below left side, that picture shows a view at the front side. Below right side, sections are sketched form the guide-fins, the prop- and turbine-blades.

The front part of the body could even be longer than drawn here. The air flows aside along its surface. The air becomes turning (here clockwise by view at the front) along the spiral curved fins. At the one hand, these fins affect pressure at their concave side, prevailingly the air however is sucked along the convex face. That vortex soaks up also air from outside.

So the air comes to the inlet of the prop-wheel already turning with an ordered structure. Many prop-blades increase the rotation of the air. At their front side, the air is accelerated by pressure, probably by halves into the turning sense and same time into backward direction. At the other hand, the back face of each blade represents a ´back-stepping wall´. The air-particles follow that face ´by themselves´, as an ordered flow, up to sound-speed (see arrows below right side). So the invested energy is transferred into kinetic flow-pressure (in diagonal direction, same time rotating around the longitudinal axis and moving towards rear). Remarkable is the fact, about half of the air masses and the speed of flows is generated by suction, i.e. without corresponding energy input. At common props, the thrust comes up only by the counter-pressure at the pressure side of the prop.

However, at common props is only effecting that part of force pushing the air straight backward. The remaining, most wider part of kinetic energy disappears fruitless. So for using the complete flow-pressure, it´s necessary to redirect the whole flow completely parallel to the longitudinal direction.

Additional Power
This redirection here s done by the turbine wheel. Thrust comes up by pressure at the concave side of the blades. However, the air is redirected also at the convex side of such blades (see arrow below right). So these masses of the air change their direction without affecting pressure. The energy of that flow escapes fruitless - if the blades are stationary. At that convex side, the air is even accelerated by the suction effect. The pressure difference at both sides thus increases. Resulting is a ´lift-force´ like at wings - however only usable as turning momentum at a turning wheel.

That turbine-wheel should turn some slower than the prop-wheel. When both wheels are coupled by a gear, according profiles will allow an optimum throughput at any revolution-speed.

It might seam a rather strange idea to mount a pump and a turbine at one shaft. The turbine can regain only a part of the invested energy (respective reduce the necessary energy input). In comparison with common props however, this conception achieves real surplus-benefits: the commonly unused energy of the rotation now is used completely. The considerable part of flows generated by suction, now is transferred into additional thrust. By the way, the demanded energy input is reduced.

Simple Concept - high Efficiency
Picture 05.15.02 shows a variation especially suitable for installing behind the wings or aside / upside at the rear end of a fuselage. Previous constructional elements are drawn once more, only arranged other kind.

The motor (M, green) is positioned in front of the engine-body (grey). At the shaft (red) are mounted the prop-wheel (PR, red) an the turbine-wheel (TR, blue). Again some guiding-fins (LS, light grey) are spiral arranged in front of the prop-inlet. The prop-blades (light red) press / suck the air some towards the axis. The air flows (rotating) through a canal (yellow) to the turbine-blades (light blue). At their short radius, these blades are moving slower within the space, so no gear is necessary. The prop- and turbine-blades could even be installed at one rotor-element. The geometry of both blades is rather easy to coordinate. They will work efficient at any revolutions.

Conventional props produce such a disordered whirling at the air, only two prop-fins are used by majority. The central part of these blades is rather ineffective. So here are installed many blades, working only at effective lever arm, generating a continuous and well ordered flow. The energy-input is transferred completely into thrust - plus the energy of flows generated by suction (for free). That new conception of prop-wheel-engines will work much more effective and economic than the common old units (inclusive turbo-versions).

Problems of Jet-Engines
The drive for transport vehicles is mostly done by combustion engines working by different stroke phases. Two third of the invested energy diffuses without usable effect, however with huge environmental pollution. The jet-engines are working with continuous production of pressure and combustion. Theoretical, such a process is more economic. Theoretical, the invested energy would be completely transferred into thrust, if the air (and gases) behind the airplane would be as calm and cold as before. Instead of, the jet-engines release a ´red-hot ray´. As four fifth of the energy evaporates without useful effect, the procedure might really be no optimum solution.

The exhaust fumes could be cooled down e.g. by injection of water. Ecologically sound however could combustion finally be, if H2O splitting and ignition is done ´on-board´ and ´on-demand´, direct at the injection nozzle. Generally however, the production of pressure makes no sense as the counter-pressures are increasing by square. Also the production of heat, by itself, is unsuitable as the particles whirl around even more chaotic.

Modern jet-engines are real masterpieces. However they are expression of the idea, one must transport backward the air, so the plane flies forward, the more pressure and heat, the more thrust is achieved automatically. For explaining the reaction-effect, often is quoted Newton´s ´actio = reactio´. However practically, one is far away from that 1:1-relation. For example, the double thrust often demands four times more fuel consumption. Only by certain revolutions the throughput is at an optimum, differing only five percent decreases the performance drastically. Jet-engines practically are used at all passenger- and freight-planes - nevertheless as suboptimum solution.

Following point of view could be an alternative: effective thrust comes up only if the kinetic energy of an ordered flow is redirected at a flat wide face. So the main aim must be the generation of suitable movements. Most few pressure should be applied. Simply by suction, a flow can be initiated up to sound speed. The air should be accelerated all times into likely turning sense. The motion should be twisting within round pipes. The combustion of fuel must accelerate once more that twist flow. Finally at the rear end, the redirection of gases parallel to the longitudinal axis will completely transfer the energy into thrust.

Flow-conform Conception
Picture 05.15.03 shows a rough sketch of that new conception. At the housing (A, grey) is turning a rotor (C, red). Diverse guide fins are mounted spiral at its surface. They press and suck the air into a small canal. The air rotates within that flat ring diagonal backward. The air tangential is guided into pipes (D, blue). Four (or more) pipes are installed, spiral arranged around the longitudinal axis further back. So the air is turning around the system axis with these pipes and in addition, the air is rotating within the pipes, so it builds an intensive curved twist flow.

These movements affect like a ´check-valve´ for the following combustion. The fuel is injected and ignited, here marked simply by yellow triangle E. The creation of pressure and heat must be organized that kind, previous twist flow is accelerated. For cooling down the combustion-unit, the cool air of additional pipes must be merged, again with accelerating effect. So decisive is generating a most fast and ordered flow. That´s running through the pipes in the compact and stable shape of a potential vortex, without resistance.

The rotor demands only few drive (in comparison with common engines). Only a small part of the generated flow must be transferred into turning momentum at the blades (light red) of the turbine-wheel (F, red). The remaining major part of the forward and the twist flow within the pipes must be redirected as a flat ray (G, light red) parallel to the longitudinal axis. Finally that redirection results the thrust force, based on the mechanic energy input of the pump and based on the produced heat energy, however also based on the self-acceleration of suction effects and also within the potential-vortices at these pipes.

Continuous Turning likely Sense
At first part, at the basics of that Fluid-Technology were discussed the motion processes and effects of potential vortices, e.g. at whirl-winds. There was also shown a ´Potential-Segment-Pipe´ with its central fast flow, running without friction and even self-accelerating. At picture 05.15.04 now is sketched, how these effects could be used here.

At the outlet of the pump, the air moves diagonal into a flat canal (at A, light blue). This air must be guided tangential into a ´snail´, from the beginning of a narrow pipe until its maximum diameter (afterward follows the next pipe into turning sense). The friction at the walls affects accelerating onto the central fast turning and forward moving flown (details see mentioned chapter of these ´Potential-Segment-Pipes´).

At least four pipes should be used. The flows are merged some later. As an example, at B the air is guided from both pipes aside into the middle pipe, all times by tangential direction. Both delivering pipes end here sharp, the diameter of the central pipe is enlarged correspondingly (see C).

This technique could be used for ´cooling´ the combustion unit (as sketched right aside). The fuel is injected and ignited (E, marked yellow) at the middle pipe. Its cross-section must become wider. Same time, the cool air from the left and right pipes D is added (again tangential), integrated as flat layers along the wall. Also here comes up the tornado-effect: the cool air moves slower and affects stronger static pressure aside. That air compresses and accelerates the central rotating flow.

It´s a well known fact (and the cause is explained at the basics), a slow flow curves towards a faster flow. By other words: the faster flow affects like suction, integrating neighbouring particles without resistance. Normally, any combustion increases the chaos of the molecular movements. Previous measurements however result a concentrated and ordered flow - and thus high kinetic flow-energy.

At this picture right side at F, once more is shown how the gases must leave tangential the outlet of the engine. Like wood exists a pencil-sharpener, the twist flow must be ´peeled off´ the pipes. That flat ray must be completely redirected parallel to the longitudinal axis. No matter how strong the pressure, how fast the flow in forward and rotating directions within these pipes, this technique achieves an optimum thrust.

Naturally it´s totally presumptuous, a layman telling high qualified specialists how to build jet-engines. Admitted, this new conception will never achieve the performance of usual turbines (because consciously abandoned producing high pressures). It will suit only for limited flight speed (because consciously accepted the limit of sound-speed for (self-) acceleration by suction effects). At the other hand, this construction is most easy to build and rather light (in comparison with known jet-engines). This machine works really fluid-conform: motions all times along curved faces, all times rotating, also by overlays, all times into same turning sense. Even the problem of cooling around the combustion unit is solved by optimum shape of flows.

Only by such ordered flows, high density and speed is achieved economical and thus with most better efficiency than by common motion-chaos of conventional engines. Only that final sharp redirection into axial direction can transfer the kinetic energies completely into thrust force. Specialist might check, this machine could by an economic interesting alternative to commonly used technology.

05.16. Air-Pressure - Bowl-Engine Aero - Technology