Alfred Evert 20.02.2003

01.06. Boundary or Boundless

Outer Border
The universe is immeasurably wide and we really can´t imagine billions of light-yeas. These distances are far beyond the horizon of men´s normal experiences, which are ´naturally´ limited to the range of millimeter to kilometer.

On the other hand it´s astonishing how easy we escape natural boundaries. For example, we can draw a circle, symbolically representing our universe. Aside of we draw other ´universe-circles´ and ask hypothetically, whether a God would have liked to put one or diverse universe into the state of existence.

By this ´divine´ distance we even are able to ask, whether outside of our universe (or between diverse universes) really Nothing could exist. Each Something thus would border to Nothing. These questions are of real ´divine´ dimension and it´s illusionary to speculate about possible answers. Nevertheless, the question about the border of our universe is relevant anyway.

One attempt to answer (or bypass) this question is the hypothesis of a bended space: a hollow body bended back into itself would have no starting and no ending point, like a circle, however three-dimensional. By previous ´divine´ view however, also such a (twisted) torus still has an outer boundary surface. So for us by view from inside it´s still the question, why the aether-inside should not disperse into the nothing-outside.

The substance of aether could be gaseous, however gases expand into areas of lower density respective pressure, so a gas-universe immediately would disperse into surrounding areas of pressure free nothing.

The substance of aether could be liquid showing much more cohesion. Based on the tension of surfaces at least come up drops. However, within a minimum outer pressure, the fluids vaporize. A universe of a liquid aether thus would also disperse into surrounding nothings.

Within stable bodies finally, the parts keep together based on diverse mechanism (as described later), e.g. a clean crystal keeps a stable shape even within extreme vacuum. So our universe could show a stabile outer-surface, if the aether would have the consistence of an extreme hard crystal.

That´s the point, where searching for properties of an aether (and aether by itself) commonly was stopped. Based on recognized, real give, rather smooth movements within the universe like at the earth, the aether must behave like an ´ideal´ gas: extreme soft and elastic respective compressible and expansible. Opposite, the aether must show the character ´harder than steel´ - otherwise the dubious appearance of extreme attracting forces should be necessary to avoid the flying-off into the void.

Dividing and Assembling
Our normal experience of everydays problems and our limited horizon hinder to find the solution of previous problem.

At the one hand we are ´mentally limited´ as we can concentrate only at one fact at one moment. We experience and consider and discuss - however only one special topic, at one time by one point of view. We know well, comprehensive knowledge will come up finally by ´holistic view´, by integration and (especially modern) by networks overlaying all subjects. However it is to state in general: as long one thinks by parts, assembling is necessary.

Second we practically handle with parts all time: all materia can be divided into parts. There is nothing within our material world of everydays experience, which is one whole piece (and if it looks like, it´s still made by diverse separate chemical compounds or molecules or atoms etc.). To handle by parts is normal usage because all products are made of parts. As soon as anything ´big´ shall be achieved, parts must be assembled and must keep together.

Previous decisive question was, how the aether of the universe could keep together. The answer is totally simple, seeming just like a ´piece of juggling´. However remember, lots of incredible hypotheses, wildest speculations and pure fictions within all sciences are rather ´tricky´.

My deduced answer simply is: no parts must keep together because the aether is one whole, coherent by itself. An aether with that property can not disperse, because there are no parts of aether anywhere. So my conclusion of previous basic problem: the whole universe is one whole piece of aether.

This claim naturally provokes opposition, cause un-divisibility is contradicting to all normal experiences. At everydays life we only handle with parts and just Quant-Physics did demonstrate, even elementary particles once more are divided into sub-elementary particles and no end of divisibility is to see.

I agree completely, because concrete experiences reflect the great variety of physical occurrences. Naturally, at scale of material bodies there are separated parts, one scale further down naturally there are separable molecules and atoms. However material bodies of different kind don´t exist of diverse ´materias´. Each elementary particle or each sub-elementary particle does not exists of an own substance. All these ´parts´ are occurrences of each other kind - of aether movements. Various occurrences show most different properties, e.g. one is the possibility building separated appearance (as a single ´whirlpool´ within aether).

As in reality there is only one unique materia, that matter of aether, logically is not to compare with other kind of ´matter´. So the aether well can show the solitary property of un-divisibility. Opposite, occurrences can be situated more or less dense to each other up to completely separated appearance of an isolated single part.

The aether of the universe is one whole and its part-less cohesion is its essential characteristic. The aether thus must not be hard like a crystal. Opposite, the aether can be totally soft and still totally cohesive. Indeed, the status of a ´gel´ is a good comparison: a gel keeps together like being one whole, based at adhesion of parts (however gel appears only like a whole, only the aether really is one whole).

Thinking by Parts
Previous question concerning outer boundary of the universe got an answer by previous conclusion. However, also by microscopic view an aether as one whole is the inevitable logic consequence.

Quite certain, all elements of atoms finally are nothings else than movements. Even the largest machines of nuclear research plants finally show nothing else than a photo of spiral ending motions when a ´particle radiates into energy´ (remarkable usage resp. a mix-up of terms: supposed reality of a material particle converts into the abstract expression of ´energy´). Materia like energy lastly are any kind of motions. Motion however can only be a movement of a something. Here that something is called aether.

However most explorers (event those who honestly think about the existence of a primary matter) regard the aether again being build by aether-parts. So one discusses the density of aether, assumes materia to be condensed aether, speculates about different speeds of aether particles, so about hot and cold areas of aether etc.

However, thinking by particles transforms the established understanding (inclusive inherent problems and unsolved phenomena) from the level of material bodies and their parts onto the level of aether and its parts and sub-particles etc. That kind of ´alternative´ physics is really superfluous, because there is no progress. The discussed problems about the gaps between suggested aether-parts and inevitably about something / nothing are completely the same than before. So thinking by aether-parts is in vain, because only shifting words.

Thinking by Parts includes the existence of gaps between, no matter how narrow ´billardballs´ are placed at the table. If one ball is pushed into certain direction, cannons by most different angles will result, so the originally directed motion is spread chaotically, lastly diffuses into ´heat´. If the aether would exist by parts, the universe already would have suffered the ´heat-death´.

On the other hand, ´signal-speed´ within a medium of parts is rather limited. The particles of air e.g. move by some 450 meter each second, so sound moves ahead by some 330 meter each second. The molecules of fluids are more dense and transport the sound correspondingly faster.

If however the speed of light within (earlier assumed ´light´-) aether should be possible, its parts should be packed incredibly dense (previous ´harder than steel´) - and other movements within the aether would be quite impossible. That´s why one decided any medium for high-speed motions would be superfluous.

At the one hand, real energy-constant (instead of energy levelling) is only possible, if forward directed movements are running without losses. On the other hand, high speeds of electromagnetic occurrences demand an extreme ´dense´ medium. This was the unsolved problem up to now.

At that common understanding again is implied an unpronounced assumption: the density of a medium is only achieved by most compact package of separated parts. The same effect is automatically given, if a medium by itself is not a compound of parts but it´s implied to be a real whole (like at common physics lots of properties are defined to be ´inherent´, strange enough - even to nothing).

Only if the aether is assumed to be a whole, an impulse within this medium is transported without loss and delay. Nevertheless exists no ´time-less´ fast signal speed. In addition, each electromagnetic wave does not only run straight ahead but ´induces´ right-angles other ´fields´.

Why should electromagnetic motion not move timeless-fast within the vacuum? Why should electric fields generate right-angled magnetic fields, mutually again and again? These are major questions, however not pronounced by common sciences. Just that phenomenon of simultaneous, inevitable, additional and right-angled effects are a clear evidence for the indivisible gapless aether.

One ´portion´ of ether can not simply move ahead, because there are already other portions, without gaps between. These second portions must move aside, if the first portion wants to move ahead. That second portion getting out of way, by itself demands siding of a third aether-portion. So lastly all portions must make place right-angled for each other, every lateral-movement demands simultaneous motions to left side - resulting the well known basics of electromagnetism.

Naturally aether never moves by right-angled-edges anywhere, but all is turning at spiral tracks, around wandering fulcrums with differing radius, multiply overlaying, by differing and varying speeds - and only as an appearance results the extreme fast light-speed of electromagnetic waves. Naturally there is no ´portion of ether´ hunting through space, like no waters flow over the ocean, even the waves produce the impression of stormy seas running ahead (as will be described next section).

Laws of Nature
Here at first it´s only to state, within parts (billardballs) never would exist steady compulsion to each right-angled additional effects (because separate balls can move as they like it, e.g. get out of way in all directions - like parts of fluids do). If the universe really would be build up by parts, chaos would exist indeed, because within parts every motion is possible, e.g. anything can move alongside boundary surfaces into any direction.

Only if the aether is assumed to be one whole with swinging motions within itself, the possibilities for motions are limited respective they are resulting inevitable follows of movement processes - like recognized as essential physical occurrences.

The remaining possibilities for motions are still of huge variety, however only within that frame which is determined by laws of nature - or vice versa: finally these restrictions (based and only demanded by a gap-less aether) result strong limitations respective the mutual relationships of physical factors, i.e. these restrictions are the laws of nature by itself.

Strange enough - and logically same time - that strong order within the system of universe will only come up, if there are no internal boundaries but everything is immediate connected with all next, most direct possible kind, as really one whole. Because the aether is no assembly of (bulky) parts, the motions within that ´soft´ aether can take place without problems, however only by ´mutual coordination´ of neighbouring areas, within that frame in practically unlimited variety.

01.07. Special Terms Aether-Physics und -Philosophy